THE GREAT SACRIFICE (UDHIYAH)
Allah says “Say (O Muhammad): Verily, my Salah (prayer), my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. He has no partner. And of this I have been commanded, & I am the first of the Muslims” [6: 162]
WHAT IS UDHIYAH ? An animal of the ‘an’am class (camel, cow, sheep or goat) that is slaughtered during the days of Eid al-Adha as a prescribed act of worship to draw closer to Allah. Al-Baraa’ ibn ‘Aazib (radiallahu anihu); the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam): “Whoever offers a sacrifice after the prayer has completed his rituals (of Eid) & has followed the way of the Muslims.” Bukhaari.
Whoever can afford to offer a sacrifice but does not do so, let him not approach our place of prayer.” (Ahmad). Abu Ayyoob: “At the time of the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam), a man would sacrifice a sheep on behalf of himself and the members of his household, and they would eat from it & give some to others.” (Ibn Maajah).
CONDITIONS FOR THE UDHIYAH. The animal should reach the required age; 6-months for a lamb, 1-year for a goat, 2-years for a cow and 5- years for a camel. Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “There are four that will not do for sacrifice: a one-eyed animal whose defect is obvious, a sick animal whose sickness is obvious, a lame animal whose limp is obvious and an emaciated animal that has no marrow in its bones.” (Saheeh al-Jaami’). If an animal has been selected for sacrifice, it is not permissible to sell it or give it away, except in exchange for one that is better. It is permissible to ride it if necessary. (Bukhari).
Prophet (saw) said: “Whoever sells the skin of his udhiyah, there is no udhiyah for him..” (Saheeh al-Jaami). ‘Ali (radiallahu anihu) said: “The Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) commanded me to take care of the sacrifice & to give its meat, skin and raiment (covering used for protection) in charity, and not to give anything of it to the butcher as a compensation . He said, ‘We will give him something from what we have.’” (Agreed upon).
HASTEN TO SACRIFICE & EAT FROM THE MEAT. Buraydah (ra) said: The Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) did not go out on the day of (Eid) al-Fitr until he had eaten, and he did not eat on the day of (Eid) al-Adha until he came back, then he would eat from his sacrifice. (Ahmad –saheeh).See Q(22:28; 22:36)
HOW TO TREAT & SLAUGHTER THE ANIMALS? It is forbidden (HARAM) to engage the animals in a fighting contest for entertainment or any other reason. The animals should be slaughtered using the divine & more humane Islamic method (scientifically proven) with sharp knives, in one stroke, throat, windpipe, carotids & jugular completely slit, spinal cord intact, well restrained, eyes covered & not killed in the presence of other animals.
Anas ibn Maalik (ra): “The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) sacrificed two white rams speckled with black. He slaughtered them with his own hand, said ‘Allaahu akbar’ & put his foot on their necks.”(Bukhari); This is on behalf of myself & any member of my ummah who did not offer a sacrifice. (Abu Dawud).
RESTRICTIONS ON ONE WHO INTENDS TO SACRIFICE.
Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “When you see the new moon of Dhu’l-Hijjah, if any one of you wants to offer a sacrifice, let him not remove anything from his hair or nails until he has offered his sacrifice.” (saheeh). Other restrictions of not wearing perfume, not having intercourse with his wife or not wearing sewn garments & so on are not applicable to him but to those in the state of Ihram. Hair or nails may be removed as a result of health or other urgent necessities. If a person removes some of his hair & nails during the first ten days of Dhu’l-Hijjah because he was not planning to offer a sacrifice, then he decides to sacrifice, he should refrain from cutting his hair or nails from the moment he makes the decision. This only applies to the one who has bought it with his/her wealth not his/her spouse or children. For more details http://islamqa.info/en/70290
SACRIFICE ON BEHALF OF THE PROPHET & THE DEAD. The general principle is that charities/du’a (devoid of innovations) can be done for the reward to be dedicated to the dead at any time. If the deceased bequeathed wealth or an endowment for that purpose, these wishes must be carried out. Sacrificing an animal during or outside Hajj for charity & dedicating the reward to our dead also falls under this. What about sacrificing, reading Quran etc. for the reward to go to the prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) out of the love we have for him; it sounds good & laudable. Disappointedly, we don’t need to, because the companions & the best generations after them did not do it for the prophet. The prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) gets equivalent of all the rewards of good deeds that every human being who submits to Allah in this Ummah does. We should continue making salawats devoid of innovations for him. Some ignorant muslims go to the worst level of sacrificing in the name of the prophet (saw) instead of the name of Allah. Allah & His prophet forbade this & it is Shirk (6:118-121). Amazingly, we have selective love for the prophet; we find it easier to emphasise unnecessary things like mawlid nabiyy, sacrificing an animal on behalf of the prophet but we don’t find it easy to obey the commands of the prophet regarding his sunnah (good character & moral values, beards, no-hisbal, recommended acts of worships etc.). To all these, we simply say, “It’s Just a Sunnah”. Further details https://imadawah.wordpress.com/2016/12/21/its-just-a-sunnah-1-of-2/
TIME TO SLAUGHTER The time for offering the sacrifice begins after the Eid prayer on Eid al-Adha & ends when the sun sets on the 13th of Dhu’l-Hijjah. So, there are 4-days of sacrifice. The 3 – days are specified because they are the days of Mina, the days of stoning (the Jamaraat) and the days of al-Tashreeq. It is forbidden to fast on these days. Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “All of Mina is the place of sacrifice, and all the days of al-tashreeq are days of sacrifice.” (sahih). Whoever slaughters his sacrifice before the Eid prayer is over, or after the sun sets on the 13th, his sacrifice is not valid except he has very cogent excuse(s).
HOW TO SHARE THE UDHIYAH? Ahmad said: ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (radiallahu anihu):‘He should eat one third (1/3) himself, feed one third(1/3) to whomever he wants, & give one third(1/3) in charity.” (reported by Abu Moosa al-Isfahaani in al-Wazaa’if; hasan. Ibn Mas’ood & Ibn ‘Umar said same. http://islamqa.info/en/45757
Giving part of hudiyyah to non muslims is allowed unlike zakatul fitr ( which is given before eid ul fitr in Ramadhan) that is only meant for poor muslims http://islamqa.info/en/180503
HOW LONG CAN THE UDHIYAH LAST? Narrated `Abis: I asked Aisha, “Did the Prophet forbid eating the meat of sacrifices offered on Eid Al-Adha for more than three days?” She said: “The Prophet did not do this except in the year when the people were hungry, so he wanted the rich to feed the poor. But later we used to store even a trotter of a sheep to eat it fifteen days later.”
PROHIBITION ON EATING THE ANIMAL SLAUGHTERED BY SHI’AS, AHMADIYYAH ETC. https://islamqa.info/en/60046 https://islamqa.info/en/177012
PROHIBITION ON HARMING ANIMALS AND SETTING THEM AGAINST ONE ANOTHER https://islamqa.info/en/102828
MISCELLANEOUS RULINGS ON UDHIYYA. http://islamqa.info/en/36432
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