This issue is one of the modern challenges to the average Muslim. Majority of evidence based scholarly opinions on this issue are complimentary & not contradictory. This is a modest attempt to simplify & reconcile these evidences In sha Allah.

Dictating what is halaal and what is haraam is the right of Allaah alone. And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, “This is lawful and this is unlawful,” to invent falsehood about Allah. Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed.” Q16:116.

The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “When the judge issues a ruling, if he strives to work it out (ajtahada) and gets it right, he will have two rewards, and if he issues a ruling and strives to work it out but gets it wrong, he will have one reward.” (Agreed upon).

WHAT IS RIBA? Riba means an increase in a particular item. The word is derived from a root meaning increase or growth. Allah says “Whatever you pay as interest so that it may increase (li yarbu) the wealth of people does not increase (fa la yarbu) in the sight of Allah” [30:39], i.e., it does not increase or rise in status before Allah. Riba takes place when 2 parties exchange same currency/good with the same currency/good without abiding by the Islamic conditions of exchange. So, if gold is sold for gold, Islam stipulates that the exchange should be done hand to hand and that the items or goods should be of the same quality. Whoever gives more or asks for more has engaged in riba. If he sells a saa‘ of wheat for two saa‘s (of the same commodity), even if it is hand to hand, he has engaged in riba. The same applies to lending; they give money as a loan provided that it will increase the money when they get it back. Such transactions are undoubtedly riba. Whoever regards Riba as permissible is guilty of kufr.

CALL CREDIT. The person who buys the call credit, buys a service to call phones at fixed rates where he pays a given amount of Dirhams or Riyals or dollars per minute, so it is permissible for the company to sell a call credit valued at 100 Dirhams, for example, for 150 Dirhams or more, and this is not interest on loan; rather, it is buying and selling on deferred payment where the extra is a fixed charge (service charge or  increase in selling price on account of deferment); both of which are permitted in Islam provided the conditions are met as in this case.

What should be taken into account (in contracts) is its reality and meanings not its words and constructions. This is in reality a sale & not a loan even though the network providers might have called it a loan, credit or borrowing. It is not a loan or borrowing with interest of any sort because we do not return back to the network provider airtime with extra airtime. It also lacks the usual attributes of interest based loans e.g. collaterals, penalties for late payment etc. ‘Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) said: Bareerah came to me and said: “I drew up a contract of manumission with my master stating that I would pay nine waqiyaha, one waqiyah each year.” [A waqiyah is a weight of silver etc]. If the purchaser is late in paying the instalments, it is not permissible to make him pay extra, whether or not this is arranged as a prior condition, because this is a form of forbidden ribaa. Same as the air time purchased, if the buyer did not pay for the loan service (airtime credit) on time there is no increase in price, penalty etc. Tap links for proofs that it is permissible to do deferred payment (instalments) & raise the price of a product in return for deferred payment (instalments) & its sharee’ah conditions,

It is also similar to the permissibility of an interest free covered or non-covered credit card as explained below. Buying airtime in this manner is neither exchanging MONEY FOR MONEY NOR SAME GOOD FOR SAME GOOD unlike the case of an interest based NON- COVERED CREDIT CARD, where one is exchanging same thing e.g. where you use the bank’s money on your credit card when you have no money in your account (same currency /money for money) and paying extra money on it as interests. The International Islamic Fiqh Council; member of OIC (not the so called fiqh council of North America) on non-covered credit cards (i.e., a card covered by money pre-deposited in the card account) concludes that it is not permissible to apply for or issue non-covered credit cards if interest is stipulated, even if the card applicant is determined to pay within the free period. It is only permissible to use credit cards that are free of things that are forbidden in sharee’ah, such as charging interest for late payments, or charging a percentage of the money withdrawn etc, because that comes under the heading of riba which is haraam. However, if the bank charges a set fee when issuing or renewing the card as a fee for the services offered (allowing you to use the money in the credit card), and covering only the cost of those services, there is nothing wrong with that. It is permissible to issue non-covered cards if there is no condition of paying interest on the original loan. Further details

Ruling on renting that ends with a promise of ownership, based on the first payment and other fees tap link.


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Standing up, sitting, bowing and prostrating (which are actions done in the prayer) are due only to the One who is truly deserving of worship, the Creator of the heavens & the earth. Whatever is due exclusively for Allah cannot be directed to anyone or anything else in any way, as in the case of “dabbing” to show off to people or signing out of an action. In al-Musnad and elsewhere it is narrated that when Mu‘aadh ibn Jabal (radiallahuanihu) may Allah be pleased with him) returned from Syria, he prostrated to the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam), and he said: “What is this, O Mu‘aadh?” He said: O Messenger of Allah, I saw them in Syria prostrating to their bishops and patriarchs, and they attributed that to the teachings of their Prophets. He said: “They are lying, O Mu‘aadh. If I were to instruct anyone to prostrate to anyone, I would have instructed women to prostrate to their husbands, and because of the rights that Allah has given them over them. O Mu‘aadh, do you think that if you pass by my grave, you would prostrate?” He said: No. He said: “Then do not do this”. Further proofs on bowing for other than Allah


The basic principle with regard to customs is that they are permissible and none of them are forbidden except that which Allah & His prophet has forbidden “Tell me, what provision Allah has sent down to you! And you have made of it lawful and unlawful” [10:59]. Imitating others especially in outward appearance is something that happens to humans. It is indicative of great love & loyalty towards them, because a person does not imitate anyone except those whom he loves, but in many cases it is an unhealthy phenomenon. It is also a sense of inferiority & psychological defeatism, but Islam does not accept for the Muslims to declare such defeat. If a Muslim imitates the disbelievers, it indicates that he prefers the way the disbeliever looks to the way he himself looks, and this may be an implicit objection to the law and will of Allah, may He be exalted. However, the Muslims are commanded to disavow the disbelievers of all types. Islam pays a great deal of attention to this issue (Muslims imitating disbelievers), and the Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) definitively prohibited it and said: “Whoever imitates a people is one of them.” Abu Dawood. Allah says : “You (O Muhammad will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers, or their kindred (people).”[58:22]. Examples include imitation of the festivals of shirk & bid’ah e.g. xmas, new year, birthday, country’s national or independence day, Mother’s Day, hygiene week etc. Imitating the hip hop culture is also haram. There is no such anomaly or self- contradiction as Halal hip-hop or Music or whatever name it is called; “NATIVE DEEN” OR “DEEN SQUAD”. It is haram. See proof Imitating or resembling the non-Muslims with regard to worldly matters is permissible only when the following conditions are met: See proofs

“The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam):“That which is lawful is clear, and that which is unlawful is also quite clear. Between these two is that which is ambiguous, which most people do not know. One who avoids the doubtful safeguards his faith and his honor.”
(Riyadh-us-Salaheen, Hadith 588).True Muslims must avoid all forms of doubtful secret signs & symbols irrespective of how they have been camouflaged e.g. as customs, music, dance (Nae Nae or dabbing), art, cartoons, fashion, culture etc. Dabbing has in common 3 important symbols of Satanism which are secrecy, symbolism & show off; the more reason many people including ignorant & copycat Muslims are doing it. “DON’T Dab on them folks, Make sujud to ALLAH”. DABBING IS HARAAM.

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“What is dabbing?” The answer(s) depend(s) on who you ask. It is a style of hip hop dance that involves dropping one’s head with one arm raised and resting the face inside the elbow of the other arm, which essentially resembles the gesture of a polite attempt at muffling a loud sneeze. Atlanta, Georgia -based rap group came up with the dab dance during the summer of 2015; it was then popularized by other rappers before catching on with athletes; numerous professional sportsmen, women, celebrities, common folks & politicians have adopted it as a celebratory gesture during games & campaigns. For weed enthusiasts, “dabs” are also known as a highly concentrated cannabis (marijuana) extracts. A rapper explained that dabs are so strong that you cough after one hit and that the dance comes from the motion of coughing into your bent arm. There is also speculation that the dance originated from “Dabbing”, an action taken where people snort cocaine from their elbow while acting like they are sneezing. It looks like you are sneezing but you stick your other arm to the side like a sideways Nazi salute. Some say it is a public method by which one checks the strength of his or her underarm deodorant. Some have called it a Devil’s sign or Devil’s dance because no one can deny the subtlety of the devil in the music industry even if there is no specific proof for this so far. There is no way to verify the authenticity or not of all these claims. Islam however has got a solution & an answer to every problem/question however complex it may be.
The Islamic ruling on Dabbing (Haram) remains the same irrespective of its origin. Whether it originates from drug users, music industry, hip hop, sports stars or Satanism.
1. Showing off is Shirk
2. Bowing for other than Allah is Haram
3. Imitating non-Muslims in worship or non-worship (customs, symbol, acts, habit, mannerism, dressing, gestures (dabbing, Nae Nae) peculiar to them & common among corrupt people, musicians, oppressors, politicians etc.) or promotes corruption directly or indirectly is prohibited.
4. Doubtful symbolism & secrecy is forbidden.
                       CARTOON 2
There is no doubt that this gesture of dabbing on folks is a way to show-off . Al-Musnad, Mahmoud ibn Labeed said: The Messenger of Allah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “The thing that I fear most for you is minor shirk.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah, what is minor shirk?” He said: “Showing off, for Allah will say on the Day when people are recompensed for their actions: ‘Go to those for whom you were showing off with your deeds in the world, and see what reward you find with them.’” (saheeh). Prophet said: “Shirk among you will be more subtle than the footsteps of an ant, but I will teach you something which, if you do it, both minor and major shirk will be kept away from you. Say: Allaahumma inni a’oodhu bika an ushrika bika wa ana a’lam wa astaghfiruka lima la a’lam (O Allaah, I seek refuge with You from associating anything with You knowingly, & I seek Your forgiveness for that of which I am unaware).” (Saheeh al-Jaami). One should realize that showing off destroys all one’s actions (i.e., cancels out the reward), and that it brings the wrath of Allaah. The wise person does not waste his energy in doing things that do not bring any reward, let alone deeds that bring the wrath and anger of Allah. Just as there will be a punishment in the Hereafter for showing off, so too there is a punishment for it in this world, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam): “Whoever shows off, Allaah will expose him.” (Bukhaari).
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                                           ‘ASHOORA’ : LIFT THE FOG.



Ibn abbass (radiallahuanihu): the prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) came to madeenah & saw the Jews fasting  on the day of “ashoora” (10th day of Muharram).He said, “what is this? They said, this is a good day when Allah saved the children of Israel from their enemy & Musa (alehim salaam) fasted on this day.” He said, we are closer to Musa (alehim salaam) than you.” So, he fasted on this day & told the people to fast. Bukhari.

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Abdullah ibn abbass (radiallahuanihu) said: when he (prophet) was told that this is a day that is venerated by the Jews & Christians. The Prophet(sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said, Next year, if Allah wills, we will fast on the 9th day as well”(to be different from the  Jews & Christians).The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) passed away before then.Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “……fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ I hope Allaah will expiate sin for the year that came before it.” (Muslim). This is the only authentic basis of ASHOORA in Al-Islam.

right ashoora



IT IS NOT the day Adam (alehimsalaam) was created & forgiven. Not the day Ibrahim (alehimsalaam) was born & removed from fire. Not the day Ismail (alehimsalaam) was saved from being sacrificed. Not the day Yusuf (alehimsalaam) was returned to Yaqoob (alehimsalaam).Not the day Noah (alehimsalaam) was saved. Not the day Ayyub (alehimsalaam) was healed. Not the day Yunus (alehimsalaam) was saved from the belly of the fish. Not the day Jesus (alehimsalaam) was raised to the heavens. Not the day on which the Qiyaamah (Judgement) will take place. Not a specially blessed day to pay Zakah, slaughter an animal, prepare & eat a special food called “ashoora” nor a day to be particularly generous to one’s family & other people. Not a day for special celebration, applying  surmah, kohl, taking  special bath, putting on henna etc. It is not an evil day (ashoora) in an unlucky month (Muharram) that marriage or intercourse must be avoided. It is not a month in which we must avoid eating meat for the 1st 10- days, fast  & mourn for 30-days of muharram. Not an evil day when the sky became red & was filled with blood because of the martyrdom of hussein (radiallahuanihu).Not  a day  of mourning, chest beating,  wailing , eulogizing, TATBIR (CUTTING  ONE’S BODY TILL  IT BLEEDS) nor  slapping ones face for the sake of the martyrdom of Hussein (radiallahuanihu).Not a day of visiting the grave or shrine of hussayn(radiallahuanihu) or of anyone. Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said  “There are two qualities in people that are indicative of kufr: casting doubts on a person’s lineage, & wailing over the dead.” (Sahih Muslim). Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) also said “He is not one of us who strikes his cheeks, or tears his garment, or speaks the words of jahiliyyah.”(Muslim). Allahu Akbar!. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) effectively excluded the Shia (Rafidah, kufaar) cult & any other who wail & eulogise the dead from this Ummah. Therefore, therefore Shi’ism is KUFR.


All these & other similar whims & fancies are FABRICATIONS, BID’A, SHIRK OF THE WOLVES IN SHEEP CLOTHINGS (SHI’ISM, KUFUR). Shias betrayed, abandoned & killed gruesomely Al Hussein (The grandson). HE WAS KILLED BY AN IRANIAN (PERSIAN), RAFIDAH (Shi’a); Shamir or Shuumar ibn Dhil Jawshan. This is the reason for their annual TATBIR (CUTTING OF BODY TILL IT BLEEDS); a belated expression of guilt & remorse for leaving Al Hussein in the lurch at Karbala.


Fast ashoora in commemoration of the Sunnah of Musa & Muhammad & not in commemoration of the martyrdom of Hussein (radiallahuanihu). Ashoora has nothing to do with the death of Al-Hussain (r.a).The “ashoora” of Islam is totally different from the ashoora of shias (kufr).The only commonality is the name “ashoora”.


Don’t celebrate the shirk, shame & blood shed of the shi’as.

This year’s Muharram 9th, 10th, 11th, 1439 A.H. correspond to  29th , 30th  Sept & 1st October, 2017  but may vary  from place to place with variations in local/regional moon sighting.


It is not permissible to eat the food prepared for the innovation & misguidance of  ‘Ashoora’ celebration

Ruling on not eating meat for the 1st 10-days of Muharram.

Ruling on Mourning, anniversary for the dead

Forbidding marriage or intercourse in Allah’s month Muharram is falsehood of the SHIAS (KUFR)

Recommendation to fast Taasoo’a’ (9th day of Muharram) with ‘Ashoora’ (10th day of Muharram)

Is it an innovation in the deen to fast on the 11th of Muharram as well as ‘Ashoora’?

Does fasting of ‘Ashoora’ expiate major sins?

All you need to know about shias. Tap this link

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The month of Allah is a great & blessed month. It is the first month of the Hijri year & is one of the sacred months:

“Verily, the number of months with Allah is twelve months (in a year), so was it ordained by Allah on the Day when He created the heavens and the earth; of them four are Sacred, that is the right religion, so wrong not yourselves therein”[9:36]. Abu Bakr (radiallahu anihu) : the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “The division of time has turned to its original form which was current the day Allaah created the heavens and earth. The year consists of twelve months of which four are sacred: three consecutive months, Dhu’l-Qa’dah, Dhu’l-Hijjah, Muharram, and Rajab of Mudar which comes between Jumada and Sha’baan.” Bukhari.

changing through education

Qataadah & Ibn ‘Abbaas said, “so wrong not yourselves therein” [9:36]: applies in all months, then Allah singled out 4-months, made them sacred, emphasize their sanctity & He made sin during these months more grave, & He made righteous deeds & the reward thereof greater.

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Qataadah said: Allah has chosen elites from His creation: from among the angels He chose Messengers, from among mankind He chose Messengers, from among speech He chose remembrance of Him (dhikr), from among spaces on earth He chose the mosques, from among the months He chose Ramadan & the sacred months, from among days of the week He chose Friday (Jumu‘ah), from among days of the year he chose the 1st 10-days of Dhul Hijjah as the best  &  from among nights He chose Laylat al-Qadr. So, venerate that which has been chosen by Allah, for people of understanding & wisdom respect that which has been chosen by Allah. We should not confuse the months of Hajj (10th ,11th & 12th months: Shawwaal, Dhu’l-Qi’dah & Dhu’l-Hijjah) with the sacred months which are (the 1st, 7th, 11th & 12th months).

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It is virtuous to observe a great deal of naafil (supererogatory) fasts during the month of Muharram. Abu Hurayrah (radiallahuanihu) : Messenger of Allah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “The best fast after Ramadan is in the month of Allah Muharram.” Muslim.

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The phrase “the month of Allah (shahr Allah)” is indicative of the veneration this month deserves, as it is attributed to Allah. Al-Qaari said: What appears to be the case is that what is meant is the entire month of Muharram. This sacred & virtuous month (Muharram) also contains another virtuous day called ‘Ashoora’.Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “……fasting the day of ‘Ashoora’ ” (10th day of Muharram) I hope Allaah will expiate thereby for the year that came before it.” Muslim.

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It is proven that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) never fasted any month in full apart from Ramadan. So, this hadeeth is to be understood as meaning that it is encouraged to fast a great deal during the month of Muharram, not to fast the entire month.Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) fasted a great deal during Sha‘baan, & perhaps the virtues of Muharram was not revealed to him until the end of his life, before he was able to fast during this month. Muslim.

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FABRICATION. “Rajab is the month of Allah, Sha’ban is my month & Ramadan is the month of my Ummah (nation)”.

The false notion that it is FORBIDDEN to get married in Muharram is falsehood of the SHIAS.

Recommendation to fast  Taasoo’a’ (9th day of Muharram) with ‘Ashoora’ (10th day of Muharram)

Is it an innovation in the deen to fast on the 11th of Muharram as well as ‘Ashoora’?


Does fasting  of ‘Ashoora’ expiate major sins?

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Allah, Most High, says, “Those who believe, and migrate and strive in Allah’s cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of Allah: they are indeed the successful people. Their Lord does give them glad tidings of a Mercy from Himself, of His good pleasure, and of Gardens where enduring pleasure will be theirs: They will dwell therein forever. Verily in Allah’s presence is a reward, the greatest (of all).” (9: 20-22).

Islam progressed not simply from the physical Hijrah, but because the then Muslims took Hijrah seriously in all its aspects & dimensions. For instance, Muslims chose Hijrah as the focal point to reckon their calendar during ‘Umar’s (ra) caliphacy. That was because a case was referred to Ameer al-Mu’mineen ‘Umar (ra) concerning a contract that one man had with another, saying that what he owed him became due in Sha‘baan.

‘Umar said; Which Sha‘baan? The Sha‘baan of this year we are in now or of last year or of next year? Then, he summoned the Sahaabah & consulted them about adopting a calendar from which they could determine when debts became due and the likes.

Some suggested adopting the Persian or the Byzantine calendar, birth of the prophet(sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam), beginning of his mission, his migration (Hijrah) or from his death. ‘Umar (ra) was inclined to choose the date of the Hijrah because it is a major landmark for Islam & it was well known when it occurred & they all agreed.


The point is that they made the beginning of the Islamic calendar the year of the Hijrah, & they made the first month of the Islamic year Muharram, as was narrated from them. This is the view of the majority of imams, so that people could conduct their businesses on that basis, with no confusion. See: al-Bidaayah wa’n-Nihaayah, 3/251-253.

  1. Muharram (“Forbidden” – it is one of the four months during which it is forbidden to wage war or fight)
  2. Safar(“Empty” or “Yellow”),
  3. Rabia Awal(“First spring”),
  4. Rabia Thani(“Second spring”)

,5. Jumaada Awal (“First freeze”),

  1. Jumaada Thani(“Second freeze”)

,7. Rajab (“To respect” – this is another holy month when fighting is prohibited),

  1. Sha’ban(“To spread & distribute”)
  2. Ramadan(“Parched thirst” – this is the month of daytime fasting),
  3. Shawwal(“To be light & vigorous”),
  4. Dhul-Qa’dah(“The month of rest” – another month when no warfare or fighting is allowed),
  5. Dhul-Hijjah(“The month of Hajj” – this is the month of the annual pilgrimage to Mecca, again when no warfare or fighting is allowed).

Download for free the HIjrah calendar, salah time adhan on to your phones & computers from

Is it advised to end the hijri year with prayers for forgiveness, fasting & tahajjud night? NO.

Ruling on offering congratulations at the beginning of the Hijri year

Is hijrah obligatory for those who feel vulnerable in their religion?

Is it obligatory for those who embrace Islam in kaafir lands to migrate (hijrah)?

The reason why Ramadan changes every year in relation to the Gregorian calendar

“Zakaah year” & the hijri year

Can Muslims settle in kaafir countries for the sake of a better life?


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the hijra new

The hijrah did not only reshape the Arabs socially & politically, but reshaped global civilizations altogether. Throughout the history of Islam, the migration was a transition between the two major eras, regarding the message of Islam; the era of Makkah & Madinah. In physical terms, Hijrah was a journey between two cities about 200 miles i.e from Mecca to Madinah (622 CE).In its grand significance, it marked the beginning of an era, a civilization, a culture & a history for the whole mankind. In essence, this signified a transition from one phase to another, as follows:

#Transition from the position of weakness, where the non-believers of Makkah — particularly the people of Quraish — humiliated, tortured & killed Muslims, to the position of strength in Madinah.

# Transition from spreading Islam through individual Da’wah to the spreading of Islam through institutionalized Da’wah, initiated by the state; The Muslim State began reaching out to Persia, Egypt, & the Byzantine Empire.

#Transition from a position where Muslims represented a small group of people, surrounded by enemies & threatened, to the position of a regional power with a strong central leadership & a large number of followers & allies.

#Transition from being a simple Islamic group of believers, to being the Islamic Ummah (nation). A phase in which Islam was not only an act of worship, but a way of life. This encompassed politics, economy, social interactions etc. This was the first time Islam was realised to be A COMPREHENSIVE RELIGION & A COMPLETE WAY OF LIFE.

The Quranic revelations bore witness to this transition; verses revealed in Makkah concentrated on Tawheed (the Oneness of Allah) while verses revealed in Madinah covered rules regarding Islamic life in general. There is no doubt whatsoever that the migration of Prophet Muhammad (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) to Madinah was the crucial event, which snowballed & established the Islamic civilization. Hijrah no doubt, kindled the light of hope in the hearts of the early Muslims who set a shining example for all Muslims, in every generation to emulate till the end of time.

the great migration new

Hijrah, in essence is an ongoing process, not a completed event. It does not mean to find a comfortable place where one would relax rather, it is a search for an environment more favourable to continuous & constructive effort. On reaching Madinah, the Prophet undertook the following all-embracing steps to establish a faithful & strong society. This is significant & contains lesson for us.

  1. Masjid(Mosque): The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) first established a Masjid for the worship of Allah. He assisted in carrying the stones & building that small, humble but most powerful structure. This was the beginning, but soon other Masajid (mosques) were established around the world today.

    2. Madrasah (Islamic school & educational institution for the community): The first school under the supervision of the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) was the school of Suffah in the masjid

    3. Mu’akhah: He established brotherhood on the basis of faith, not on the basis of tribes, race, colour, social class etc. as they used to have prior to Islam ; between the Muhajirun (Muslims who migrated from Makkah) & the Ansar (residents of Madinah who helped the Prophet & his Companions).

  2. Intercommunity & Interfaith Relations:Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) also established good relations with other communities living in Madinah. There was a large Jewish community as well as some other Arab tribes who had not accepted Islam. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) prepared aMithaq (a covenant or a constitution) for relations between these communities.

    5. Cleaning the City: Yathrib (previous name of Madinah) was a dirty city. When the Sahabah (Prophet’s Companions) came from Makkah to Madinah, many of them got sick & did not like that city. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) asked them to clean the city & remove its dirt & filth. `Aishah, (ra) said: “We came to Madinah & it was the most polluted land of Allah. The water there was most stinking. (Al-Bukhari)

    6. Water System in the City: The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) asked the Sahabah to dig wells in different parts of the city. It is mentioned that more than 50 wells were opened in the city of Madinah & there was enough clean water for every-one.

    7. Agriculture  & Gardening: The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) encouraged the Sahabah to cultivate the land & make gardens. He told them that any-one who would cultivate any dead land, would own it. Many people started working & cultivating & soon there was enough food for every-one.

    8. Poverty Eradication: In a short period of time it happened that there were no poor people in Madinah. Everyone had enough and the Prophet (saw) used to give gifts to coming delegations.

    9. Safety, Security, Law & Order: Madinah became the safest city in the world. There were very few incidents of theft, rape, drunkenness or murder & they were immediately taken care of. In short, Hijrah teaches us that wherever Muslims go, they should bring goodness to that land. Muslims should work for both moral & material goodness of the society.

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With regard to permissibility of praying at home at times of tribulation, when Muslims cannot walk safely through the streets or reach the mosque safe and sound to attend prayers in jamaa’ah. But we must examine the situation more carefully before deciding not to attend Jumu’ah prayer because of its extreme importance. So we should not stop praying in jamaa’ah or stop attending Jumu’ah prayers on the grounds of mere speculation or an unlikely possibility of aggression. Rather if a person is certain or believes it to be most likely that he will be attacked if he goes to the mosque, then it is permissible for him not to go.

Among the opinions of the scholars concerning the permissibility of refraining from going to Jumu’ah prayers or prayers in jamaa’ah because of fear is the comment of Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) who said: “The one who is sick and the one who is afraid is excused from attending them – i.e., Jumu’ah and prayers in jamaa’ah – according to the view of most of the scholars. Ibn ‘Abbaas narrated that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: ‘Whoever hears the call to prayer and is not prevented from responding by an excuse –’ They said, ‘What is the excuse, O Messenger of Allaah?’ He said, ‘Fear or sickness, (otherwise) the prayer that he offers will not be accepted.’” (narrated by Abu Dawood, 1/130. Shaykh al-Albaani classed this version of the hadeeth as da’eef (weak), but he classed as saheeh (sound) the version narrated by Ibn Maajah, 793, which says: “Whoever hears the call and does not come, his prayer is not valid, except for one who has an excuse.”Al-Irwaa’ 2/337). And Bilaal used to give the call to prayer; one day the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came when he was sick, and said, ‘Tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in prayer.’” (al-Bukhaari, 633; Muslim, 418)

Fear is of three kinds: fear for oneself, fear for one’s wealth, and fear for one’s family. The first kind means fearing capture by an oppressive ruler, or an enemy, or a thief, or attack by wild animals, or a flood, etc., which may cause harm to oneself.

The second kind means fear for one’s wealth if one leaves home, as we have mentioned, such as oppressive rulers, thieves and the like, or fear that one’s house may be broken into or burned down or something like that; in such cases one is excused from attending Jumu’ah and prayers in jamaa’ah.

The third kind means fear for one’s child and family. In all such cases one is excused from attending Jumu’ah and prayers in jamaa’ah. This was the view of ‘Ataa’, al-Hasan, al-Oozaa’i and al-Shaafa’i, and we know of no difference of opinion concerning this matter.” (summarized from al-Mughni, 2/376).

In Fataawa al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz, when a man asked him about refraining from attending prayers in jamaa’ah because he was afraid for his wife, he said, “If there is some danger to your wife (at home) and she is not safe, and she is surrounded by things which give rise to fear, then he is excused for praying at home because of his fear for his wife…” Then he said: “But if your wife is not safe and the place is not safe, and danger is present, then it is o.k. for you to pray at home; this is a legitimate excuse…”

Majmoo’ Fataawa Samaahat al-Shaykh Ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him), 12/42

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With regard to Muslim women, they should stay in their homes and not go out – as much as they can – lest they be exposed to harm. Their relatives and neighbours should help them to meet their needs so that they will not be forced to go out. This is a means of earning great reward by helping those who are in desperate need.

With regard to Muslim men giving up distinctive Islamic dress and wearing the clothes commonly found in the kaafir society in which he lives, that is o.k., especially at times of persecution and harassment. Imaam Ibn Taymiyah said:

“The Muslim in a kaafir country that is at war with the Muslims or otherwise is not commanded to differ from them in outward appearance, because of the harm that may result from that. Rather it is recommended or obligatory for men to resemble them sometimes in his outward appearance, if that serves a religious purpose such as calling them to Islam, or finding out about their true state of affairs in order to inform the Muslims of that, or warding off their harm from the Muslims, and other righteous goals.” (Iqtidaa’ al-Siraat al-Mustaqeem, p. 176).

The words of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah must be understood correctly. He is speaking of special circumstances or cases of necessity; he does not mean at all that Muslims should become assimilated with the kaafirs and do evil things or drink alcohol with them or that Muslim children should go to churches and lose their Islamic identity. Rather what is meant is that it is permissible to forego distinctive Islamic dress – for example – and wear clothing of the type prevalent in the kaafir country, and to speak the language of the kaafirs, etc., in order to ward off the harm of the kaafirs, especially in an atmosphere that is charged with hostility.

Perhaps these events will give the Muslims who are living in kaafir lands unnecessarily and for no shar’i purpose the opportunity to review their situation and consider going back to the Muslim world and making hijrah from the land of the kaafirs.

“O you who have believed, shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [It is that] you believe in Allah and His Messenger and strive in the cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives. That is best for you, if you should know. He will forgive for you your sins and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in gardens of perpetual residence. That is the great attainment. And [you will obtain] another [favor] that you love – victory from Allah and an imminent conquest; and give good tidings to the believers”. (Q61:10-13)



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They have often been called the most persecuted, oppressed minority in the world. The 1.1 million Rohingya Muslims squeezed into the north-west state of Rakhine, in mainly Buddhist Burma, bordering majority Muslim Bangladesh, are stateless and unwanted. Neither country will give them citizenship even though their families’ roots in modern-day Rakhine, once called Arakan, can be traced back to the Eighth Century. Since World War Two they have been treated increasingly by Burmese authorities as illegal, interloping Bengalis, facing apartheid-like conditions that deny them free movement or state education while government forces intermittently drive out and slaughter them. Over the past years, military operations against Rohingya villages have been so intense and cruel that the minority’s defenders have warned of an unfolding genocide. The United Nations has reported these state sponsored military committing religious, ethnic cleansing & genocide. The inhumane treatment of the Rohingyas has tarnished the image of Myanmar’s civilian leader and Nobel peace prize laureate Aung San Suu Kyi, once a famously unflinching defender of human rights, justice, fairness, freedom & darling of the West. She now faces international fury, particularly from Muslim nations, for failing to stand up to armed forces chief General Min Aung Hlaing, whose soldiers are accused of rape, murder, arson, and of ripping Rohingya babies from their mothers’ arms and throwing them into rivers and fire.

Allaah  says: “and you shall certainly hear much that will grieve you from those who received the Scripture before you (Jews & Christians) and from those who ascribe partners to Allaah; but if you persevere patiently, and become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious) then verily, that will be a determining factor in all affairs”[3:186]. Our attitude must be clear; we must explain to the kuffaar the ruling of Islamic sharee’ah concerning harming and killing others. We should tell them that Islam forbids harming innocent people in any way, whether that involves harming their bodies, their wealth or their honour. The Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said: “There should be neither harming nor reciprocating harm.” It is not permissible to kill a kaafir who is not hostile or who has a legitimate peace treaty with the Muslims; rather treating a non-hostile kaafir with kindness is part of the Islamic religion, especially if that is done to call him to Islam and soften his heart (towards Islam). Allaah says:

“Allaah does not forbid you to deal justly and kindly with those who fought not against you on account of religion nor drove you out of your homes. Verily, Allaah loves those who deal with equity” [60:8]

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At times of war against the kuffaar, it is not permissible for a Muslim to deliberately kill a kaafir child or woman who is not bearing arms against the Muslims or helping in the fight. It was narrated that the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhiwasallam) said to the Muslim army: “Go out in the name of Allaah and by the help of Allaah, following the way of the Messenger of Allaah. Do not kill any old man, infant, child or woman… spread goodness and do good, for Allaah loves those who do good.” (Abu Dawood)

This is supported by the advice which Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq (may Allaah be pleased with him) gave to the commander of his army: “I advise you of ten things: do not kill a woman, or a child, or any old person, or cut down any fruit trees…” (al-Muwatta’, 982, Kitaab al-Jihaad).

The kaafirs whom the Muslims fight and inflict harm and loss upon are the kaafirs who fight the Muslims and drive them out of their homes, or help to drive them out of their homes and punish and mistreat them, and who stand in the way of calling people to Islam and prevent people from following the path of Allaah, and prevent the spread of Islam. Allaah says:

“It is only as regards those who fought against you on account of religion, and have driven you out of your homes, and helped to drive you out, that Allaah forbids you to befriend them. And whosoever will befriend them, then such are the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers those who disobey Allaah).”[60:9]

Such people are to be fought against when [the Muslims] have the power to do so, and when fighting them and declaring jihad against them is more likely to serve a purpose. But when you can achieve your purpose with gentleness and kindness, it is not right to resort to violence and force. Muslims should only use force when they are compelled to, and as a last resort. They should not initiate fighting, unless there is some cause on the part of the kaafirs, such as their fighting the Muslims, or helping other enemies of the Muslims, or preventing them from following the path of Allaah and establishing the law of Allaah in the land.

We should also remind these kaafirs of the massacres which have been carried out and are still being carried out against Muslims in all parts of the world, in Bosnia, Kosova, Chechnya, Palestine and Kashmir, which are being supported by Jews, Christians and others. Is the blood of the Muslims cheaper than the blood of others? Should there be mourners for non-Muslims who are killed and not for Muslims who are killed?

Moreover, when the Orthodox Christians carried out massacres in Bosnia and Kosova, in which the numbers of those killed exceeded 200,000, apart from those who were wounded or raped, and the economic losses that resulted, did the Muslims in the Arab and Islamic countries launch attacks against the Orthodox Christians who live in their countries, or kill any of them, or open fire against their churches and subject them to terror?! What does this tell you?

It is very important for Muslims to explain these things to non-Muslims, in order to establish proof against the kuffaar. This is something that Allaah wants. Secondly, among the kuffaar there are intelligent and fair-minded people, and people who are receptive to the guidance of Islam; perhaps they will be affected by a clear explanation. Thirdly, no Muslim should permit himself to be accused without explaining his innocence. The distorted image of Muslims is one of the things that is keeping the kaafirs away from the truth and being affected by the Muslims; indeed it may make them treat the Muslims like outcasts, resulting in additional wrongdoing towards the Muslims.  “O you who have believed, shall I guide you to a transaction that will save you from a painful punishment? [It is that] you believe in Allah and His Messenger and strive in the cause of Allah with your wealth and your lives. That is best for you, if you should know. He will forgive for you your sins and admit you to gardens beneath which rivers flow and pleasant dwellings in gardens of perpetual residence. That is the great attainment. And [you will obtain] another [favor] that you love – victory from Allah and an imminent conquest; and give good tidings to the believers”. (Q61:10-13)


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